24:1 On the first day of the week [corresponds to our Sunday], very early in the morning [probably at first light], the women took the spices [probably myrrh and aloes] they had prepared and went [the women knew the location of the tomb (Lk. 23:55)] to the tomb [carved into the rock (Lk. 23:53); Jewish leaders requested Roman authorities to put a seal on the tomb and to post a guard (Matt. 27:62-66)].
Note: Regarding the women present at the tomb (each God-inspired writer included details appropriate to the purpose of his particular Gospel):
• Matt. 28:1 — Mary Magdalene and the other Mary
• Mark 16:1 — Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, Salome
• Luke 24:10 — Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and the others with them
• John 20:1 — Mary Magdalene, others implied by the use of “we” in verse 2
24:2 They [the women encountered an unexpected situation] found the stone [prevented animals and humans from entering the tomb and disturbing the body] rolled away [separation in sense of distance, thus rolled away] from the tomb,
Note: Regarding position of stone:
• Matt. 27:60 — kulio: “to roll”
• Mark 16:3,4 — anakulio: “to roll up / upward”
• Luke 24:2 — apokulio: “separation in sense of distance thus rolled away”
• John 20:1 — airo: to pick up and carry away
24:3 but when they entered, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus.
24:4 While they were wondering [perplexed] about this, suddenly two men [cf. Jn. 20:12] in clothes that gleamed [shining, glistening] like lightning stood beside them.
24:5 In their fright the women bowed [to show respect and reverential fear] down with their faces to the ground, but the men said to them, “Why do you look for the living among the dead?
24:6 He is not here; he has risen! Remember how he told you [cf. Lk. 9:18-22; 18:31-33; the women knew of what Jesus had said concerning His own death], while he was still with you in Galilee:
24:7 ‘The Son of Man [a title applied to Jesus as God in the flesh and the agent of divine judgment (cf. Dan. 7:13-14)] must [stresses the necessity of His death in order for salvation to be provided for all who would believe and trust in Jesus] be delivered into the hands of sinful men, be crucified and on the third day be raised again.’”
24:8 Then they remembered his words [only then did things begin to make sense].
24:9 When they came back from the tomb, they told all these things to the Eleven [cf. Matt. 27:5 re: Judas’ suicide] and to all the others [perhaps the two men who later traveled to Emmaus (Lk. 24:13-35) and the approximately 120 others who followed Jesus (Acts 1:15)].
24:10 It was Mary Magdalene [Jesus had cast seven demons out of her (Lk: 8:2); she was at the cross and at the tomb as per all Gospel accounts], Joanna [also mentioned in Lk. 8:3; married to Cuza, the manager of Herod’s household], Mary the mother of James [also mentioned in Mk. 15:40; 16:1; may be “the other Mary” of Matt. 28:1], and the others [Salome (Mk. 16:1) and other unnamed women] with them who told this to the apostles.
24:11 But they did not believe [shows that the disciples were not anticipating the resurrection] the women, because their words seemed to them like nonsense.
24:12 Peter [and John (Jn. 20:3-4)], however, got up and ran to the tomb. Bending over, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves [cf. Jn. 20:6-7], and he went away, wondering to himself what had happened.
24:13 Now that same day [resurrection Sunday; cf. Lk. 24:1-12; read Lk. 24:21b] two [number required to provide a valid witness] of them [Jesus’ followers from Jerusalem; part of “all the others” (Lk. 24:9) who thought the report of the women concerning the resurrected Christ seemed like nonsense (Lk. 24:11)] were going to a village called Emmaus [name means “hot baths”], about seven miles from Jerusalem.
24:14 They were talking with each other about everything that had happened [Jesus’ arrest, trial, crucifixion, report of the resurrection].
24:15 As they talked [conversing] and discussed [questioning] these things with each other, Jesus [the first appearance of the resurrected Lord in Luke’s Gospel] himself [emphatic] came up and walked along with them;
Note: Witness Like Jesus…
• Jesus “walked along with them” (24:15)
24:16 but they were kept from [suggests this happened by a special act of God] recognizing him.
24:17 He asked them, “What are you discussing [an exchange of ideas; “throwing back and forth”] together as you walk along?” They stood still [they stopped in their tracks], their faces downcast [long-faced; expression suggests they still did not understand significance of events in Jerusalem and were sad and filled with heartache].
Note: Witness Like Jesus…
• Jesus asked questions (24:17)
24:18 One of them [do not know whether the other was male or female; some have suggested that the other was the wife of Cleopas], named Cleopas [was likely known to Luke’s readers; tradition holds that he was an uncle of Jesus, a brother of Joseph], asked him, “Are you only a visitor [city was crowded with pilgrims during Passover week] to Jerusalem and do not know the things [suggests that the events of the previous days were known by all who were in Jerusalem] that have happened there in these days?”
24:19 “What things?” he asked. “About Jesus of Nazareth,” they replied [their answer reveals what they understood about Jesus before they recognized Him as the resurrected Lord]. “He was a prophet [a spokesman for God], powerful in word and deed before God and all the people [implication is that people saw, heard, and approved Jesus’ words and actions].
24:20 The chief priests and our rulers [they did not attribute Jesus’ death to the Romans; cf. 1 Thess. 2:14-15 re: Jews responsibility in Jesus’ death] handed him over [to Pilate] to be sentenced to death, and they [the Sanhedrin responsible for this, not Pilate and his soldiers] crucified him [for those unaware of Jesus’ resurrection, the cross looked like the end; seemed hope was gone];
24:21 but we had hoped [reflects disappointment] that he was [more than a prophet (24:19)] the one who was going to redeem [word occurs only three times in NT (Titus 2:14; 1 Pet. 1:18); people expected Jesus to politically redeem nation; read Lk. 2:28 re: “all who were looking forward to the redemption of Jerusalem;” they failed to realize that Jesus came to redeem people from sin and death] Israel. And what is more, it is the third day [cf. Lk. 24:13 re: “Now that same day…”] since all this took place.
24:22 In addition, some of our women [“Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Mary the mother of James, and the others with them” (Lk. 24:10)] amazed us. They went to the tomb early this morning [cf. Lk. 24:1]
24:23 but didn’t find his body [cf. Lk. 24:3]. They came and told us that they had seen a vision of angels, who said he was alive.
24:24 Then some of our companions [Peter and John (Jn. 20:2-10)] went to the tomb [because they did not believe the women (24:11)] and found it just as the women had said, but him they did not see.”
24:25 He said to them, “How foolish [dull; cf. Gal. 3:1,3] you are, and how slow of heart to believe all [they obviously believed a part of the prophetic message (concerning a coming Redeemer for Israel); Jesus would explain to them what they had missed or failed to believe] that the prophets have spoken!
24:26 Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory [kingly rule or authority]?”
24:27 And beginning with Moses [the Law: Genesis through Deuteronomy; Moses had promised that God would raise up from among the people “a prophet like me” (Deut. 18:15)] and all the Prophets [surely Jesus pointed to passages like Isa. 53], he [Jesus pointed them to the Scriptures] explained [or interpreted; our English word “hermeneutics” (the science of interpretation) is derived from this Greek word] to them what was said in all [entire OT] the Scriptures concerning himself.
Note: Witness Like Jesus…
• Jesus “explained [Scriptures] to them” (24:27)
24:28 As they approached the village to which they were going, Jesus acted as if he were going farther.
24:29 But they urged him strongly [to prevail upon], “Stay with us, for it is nearly evening; the day is almost over.” So he went in to stay with them.
24:30 When he was at the table with them [note four actions; cf. 24:35],  he took bread,  gave thanks,  broke it and  began to give it to them.
Note: Witness Like Jesus…
• Jesus shared a meal with them (24:30)
24:31 Then their eyes were opened [fully] and they recognized [fully; they knew without question that it was Jesus] him, and he disappeared from their sight.
24:32 They asked each other, “Were not our hearts burning [to glow with warmth; emotional response] within us while he talked with us on the road and opened [Jesus helped them understand the Scriptures] the Scriptures to us?”
Note: After we see Jesus…
• vision “their eyes were opened” (24:31)
• emotion “were not our hearts burning” (24:32)
• insight “opened the Scriptures to us” (24:32)
• action “returned at once to Jerusalem” (24:33)
• fellowship “assembled together” (24:33)
• evangelism “the two told what happened” (24:35)
24:33 They got up and returned at once [urgency; they could not wait] to Jerusalem. There they found the Eleven and those with them, assembled together
24:34 and saying, “It is true! The Lord has risen and has appeared to Simon [cf. 1 Cor. 15:5].”
24:35 Then the two told what had happened on the way, and how Jesus was recognized by them when he broke the bread.
24:36 While they were still talking about this, Jesus himself stood among them [they were behind locked doors (Jn. 20:19); read 1 Cor. 15:42-44 re: nature of a resurrection body; this is the third appearance of the risen Christ recorded by Luke] and said to them, “Peace be with you [common first century greeting].”
Note: Jesus’ death and resurrection has made possible:
• peace with God — Rom. 5:1
• peace within — Phil. 4:7
• peace with others — 2 Cor. 13:11
24:37 They were startled and frightened [comes from a word that is source of our word “phobia”], thinking they saw a ghost.
24:38 He said to them, “Why [after all, Jesus Himself had predicted these events (Mk. 8:31; 9:31; 10:34)] are you troubled [describes an agitated, stirred up, excited state of mind; they were troubled because they had not expected His resurrection], and why do doubts [concerned whether what they saw was real or a ghost] rise in your minds?
24:39 [Jesus graciously sought to reassure the disciples…] Look at my hands and my feet. It is I myself [the Jesus they knew]! Touch me [a way to reassure them that He was the same individual who had died on the cross] and see; a ghost does not have flesh and bones [cf. Matt. 28:9; Jn. 20:27], as you see I have.”
24:40 When he had said this, he showed them his hands and feet [the marks of crucifixion would have been evident; undeniable evidence that He Himself literally had risen from the dead; cf. 1 Jn. 1:1].
24:41 And while they still did not believe it because of joy and amazement, he asked them, “Do you have anything here to eat [a ghost would not be able to partake of food]?”
24:42 They gave him a piece of broiled fish,
24:43 and he took it and ate it [to show that he was not a “ghost” (24:37)] in their presence.
24:44 [Jesus talked of Scriptural support for His resurrection…] He said to them, “This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything [the prophecies re: His birth, suffering, death, resurrection] must be fulfilled that is written about me in [note that the entire OT spoke of Jesus…] the Law of Moses [first five books of the OT], the Prophets [Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the 12 Minor Prophets] and the Psalms [the largest book in the section of Writings (here represents the entire section)].”
24:45 Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures.
24:46 He told them, “This is what is written [Jesus’ death and resurrection were part of God’s plan]: The Christ will suffer [cf. Lk. 24:26; Acts 1:3; 17:3] and rise from the dead on the third day,
24:47 and repentance [turning away from sin and turning to Christ in faith] and forgiveness [to have sins put away and to be reconciled to God] of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem [cf. Acts 1:8].
24:48 You are witnesses [their eyewitness testimony would help convince others of Jesus’ identity and mission] of these things.
Note: What responsibility is given to believers? Is it an option? What makes it difficult for you to carry out this assignment?
24:49 I am going to send you what my Father has promised [reference to the Holy Spirit; cf. Jn. 14:16-17]; but stay in the city until [cf. Acts 2:1-47] you have been clothed with power [Jesus supplied the power necessary for His followers to do what He commanded them to do] from on high.”
24:50 When he had led them out [of Jerusalem] to the vicinity of Bethany [a village located about two miles from Jerusalem on the lower side of the Mount of Olives], he lifted up his hands and blessed them [Jewish high priests would dismiss the people in this fashion after offering sacrifices].
24:51 While he was blessing them, he left them and was taken up into heaven [cf. Acts 1:9].
24:52 Then they worshiped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy.
24:53 And they stayed continually at the temple, praising God [cf. Simeon (Lk. 2:25-32) and Anna (Lk. 2:36-38)].