1 Samuel 22:1-2
22:1 David left Gath and escaped [probably refers to David’s continuing flight from Saul] to the cave of Adullam [located about 10 miles southeast of Gath; names means “sealed off place” and was natural stronghold, however David’s greatest stronghold was the Lord (Ps. 18:2)]. When his brothers and his father’s household [they were likely in danger of being held hostage by Saul (cf. 22:3)] heard about it, they went down to him there.
22:2 All those who were in distress [someone under great pressure, perhaps from oppression of Saul’s unreasonable rule] or in debt [perhaps those repaying debts with usurious interest rates; perhaps they saw David as only hope of repaying debt through sharing spoils of victory] or discontented [means “bitter in soul” (cf. Ruth 1:20); perhaps these found a new family and home with David] gathered around him, and he became their leader. About four hundred men [force later grew to six hundred men (23:13)] were with him.
22:3-4 David took his aging parents to the king of Moab and asked him to protect them.