12:1 The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt [regulations concerning Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread given to Moses while Israelites still in Egypt],
12:2 “This month [the month of their deliverance] is to be for you the first month [called Abib (13:4) and later renamed Nisan (Neh. 2:1)], the first month of your year [religious New Year; passover provided a new beginning for Israel].
12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel [expression used to describe Israel in a religious sense] that on the tenth day [lamb killed at sunset on the 14th day (cf. 12:6)] of this month each man is to take a lamb for his family, one for each household.
12:4 | provision for small households
12:5-6 | instructions concerning lamb
12:7 | lamb’s blood on doorframes
12:8-10 | preparing and eating lamb
12:11 This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak tucked into your belt [for easy movement], your sandals on your feet [ready to travel] and your staff [walking stick] in your hand. Eat it in haste [anxious haste]; it is the LORD’s Passover [Heb. pesah: can refer to either the feast or the sacrificial victim].
12:12 “On that same night I will pass through [indicates coming judgment] Egypt and strike [smite] down every firstborn – both men and animals – and I will bring judgment [cf. God’s warning of this in 4:23; 11:5 and fulfillment in 12:29] on all the gods [in addition to Pharaoh and the people; Pharaoh’s firstborn son was considered deity; would demonstrate the impotence of Egypt’s gods] of Egypt. I am the LORD.
12:13 The blood [on the doorframes] will be a sign [a sign of faith that God would do what He promised] for you on the houses where you are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over [indicates act of grace] you. No destructive plague will touch you when I strike Egypt.
12:14 Israel charged to commemorate day for generations to come
Note: “Passover was the ancient Hebrews’ Easter and the Fourth of July all wrapped up into one” (Page H. Kelley). The feast “looked forward to a greater event – the death of Christ” … [who] “was crucified at Passover and shed His blood…” (Stephen Carlson).