4:1 Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan [cf. Lk. 3:21-22] and was led [sent or compelled] by the Spirit in the desert [a lonely and dangerous place],
Note: The late evangelist Angel Martinez once said: “After the baptism came the battle. After the dove came the devil. After the voice from heaven came the roar from hell.”
4:2 where for forty days he was tempted [temptation often follows a commitment to obey/serve God; spiritual victory often followed by spiritual conflict; temptation tries to divert us from God and what He has called us to do; cf. Heb. 4:15] by [points to source of temptation] the devil [slanderer or accuser; the devil is real]. He ate nothing [fasting helps individual draw near to and focus on God] during those days, and at the end of them he was hungry [famished; result of fast; Satan attacked Jesus at vulnerable point].
Note: Other biblical events occurred in time periods involving the number forty.
40 days of rain in Flood Gen. 7:17
• Moses spent 40 days on Mount Sinai Ex. 24:18
• Israel wandered 40 years in wilderness Deut. 29:5
• Goliath taunted Israel’s army 40 days 1 Sam. 17:16
• Elijah spent 40 days in wilderness 1 Kings 19:8
4:3 The devil [tempting is a function of the devil] said to him, “If [does not express doubt; first class condition in Greek construction: the reality of a condition affirmed from viewpoint of the speaker; can be translated “since”] you are the Son of God [same title for Jesus used at His baptism (cf. Matt. 3:17)], tell this stone to become bread.”
4:4 Jesus answered, “It is written [Deut. 8:2-3]: ‘Man does not live on bread [people do need bread or physical nourishment; cf. Matt. 6:11] alone [we cannot depend solely on own resources; people have greater need for spiritual nourishment].'”
4:5 The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world [cf. Jn. 12:31].
4:6 And he said to him, “I will give you [resulting in instant power, authority, wealth apart from the suffering of the cross] all their authority [cf. Jn. 12:31; 14:30; 1 Jn. 5:19 re: Satan’s delegated authority from God] and splendor, for it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to.
4:7 So if [condition] you worship me [cf. Isa. 14:13-14], it will all be yours [beware: Satan may give you want you want but he will take what you have].”
4:8 Jesus answered, “It is written [Deut. 6:4-5,13]: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve him only.'”
4:9 The devil led him to Jerusalem [religious and political seat of Palestine] and had him stand on the highest point [pinnacle or summit; portico on southeast corner of temple complex; about 450 feet high] of the temple [tallest building in Jerusalem]. “If you are the Son of God,” he said, “throw yourself down from here [temptation to misuse/abuse power available to Him; a presumptuous act rather than a great act of faith].
4:10 For it is written [devil quoted but twisted the meaning of Ps. 91:11-12 to suit his purposes; this passage not a license to abuse God’s power to satisfy a personal whim]: ” ‘He will command his angels [messengers] concerning you to guard you carefully;
4:11 they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone [a spectacular rescue would have impressed the masses].'”
4:12 Jesus answered [Deut. 6:16], “It says: ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test [to put on a decisive test].'”
4:13 When the devil had finished all this tempting, he left him until an opportune time [Satan continued to tempt Jesus (cf. Matt. 16:23; 26:36-46); Matt. 4:11 adds: and angels (Ps. 103:20-21) came and attended him].
Luke 4:14 — 9:50 Jesus’ Galilean Ministry
4:14 Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about him [John’s Gospel records that Jesus had already turned water into wine (Jn. 2:1-12); cleared the temple (Jn. 2:12-25); ministered in Samaria (Jn. 4:1-42) and then returned to Galilee] spread through the whole countryside.
4:15 He taught in their synagogues [came into existence during the Exile when the Jews no longer had their temple; at least ten Jewish families required to have a synagogue; place of worship on Sabbath and education for young boys during week], and everyone praised him [Jesus taught with authority (cf. Matt. 7:29; Lk. 4:32)].
4:16 He went to Nazareth [Jesus’ first visit there after he had begun His public ministry; referred to as a town (or city, from Gr. polis) in Lk. 2:4], where he had been brought up [to nourish, to rear], and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue [place for worship and instruction], as was his custom [synagogue attendance expected of every devout Jew; Jesus set example re: importance of worship; cf. Heb. 10:24-25]. And he stood up [customary posture (for reader and people) for reading the Scriptures] to read.
Note: Three parts of a synagogue service: First, worship. Second, reading from the law and the prophets. Third, teaching.
4:17 The scroll [Gr: biblion] of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him [by the attendant (cf. v. 20); the person in charge of keeping safe the sacred scrolls]. Unrolling it, he found [implies Jesus chose the passage to read; Jesus knew the Scriptures] the place where it is written [cf. Isa. 61:1-2; 58:6]:
4:18 [Lk. 4:18-19 is “the gospel according to Jesus” (cf. Lk. 7:22)] “The Spirit of the Lord is on me [cf. Lk. 3:22; 4:1], because he has anointed [the title “Christ” is derived from this word] me to [for this purpose; the Messiah’s job description; note fivefold mission statement]  preach good news [one word in Greek text: euangelizo] to the poor [economically poor; spiritually poor; those humbly dependent on God; poor more receptive to good news than the rich]. He has sent [to send on a mission; to send as an authoritative representative] me to [2: emancipation] proclaim [herald] freedom [forgiveness, deliverance] for the prisoners [those shackled by their sins; cf. Jn. 8:34] and [3: illumination] recovery of sight for the blind [Jesus restored the sight of many who were physically blind, but primarily came to give sight to those spiritually blind], to [4: liberation] release [set at liberty; freedom] the oppressed [bruised; people broken in pieces, both in heart and body; those oppressed by slavery to sin; those whipped down by life or crushed by their circumstances],
Note: Ask the following questions…
• To what are you enslaved? How can Jesus set you free from your enslavement?
• In what ways are people today spiritually blind? How can Jesus open the eyes of the blind today?
• What things oppress people today? How can Jesus set people free from the things that oppress them?
4:19 to [5: salvation] proclaim the year [Year of Jubilee (Lev. 25) which occurred every 50 years (debts forgiven, forfeited land returned, prisoners set free); Jesus brought the fulfillment of that year] of the Lord’s favor [or that the day of salvation had come].”
4:20 Then he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant and sat down [the one teaching generally sat down to teach (cf. Matt. 5:1)]. The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fastened on [to look or gaze intently; listening with rapt attention] him,
4:21 and he began [implies that Jesus said more than is recorded here; this is the heart of what He said] by saying to them, “Today [the decisive time of God’s action; cf. 2 Cor. 6:1-2] this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing [a declaration that He was the Messiah God had promised Israel].”
4:22 [initial response of the people] All spoke well [positive attitude] of him and were amazed [admired; held in wonder] at the gracious [winsome or attractive] words that came from his lips. [initial enthusiasm became skepticism; admiration turned into antagonism] “Isn’t this Joseph’s son? [cf. Matt. 13:53-28; apparently, Jesus did not fit their concept of the Messiah]” they asked.
4:23 Jesus said to them, “Surely [certainly] you will quote this proverb to me: ‘Physician, heal yourself! Do [in order to prove claims] here in your hometown what [miracles] we have heard that you did in Capernaum.’”
4:24 “I tell you the truth,” he continued, “no prophet is accepted in his hometown.
4:25 [example 1 of how God’s grace was extended to the Gentiles (a lowly widow in need of food)] I assure you that there were many widows in Israel in Elijah’s time, when the sky was shut for three and a half years and there was a severe famine throughout the land.
4:26 Yet Elijah was not sent to any of them [for sustenance], but to a widow [a Gentile; cf. 1 Kings 17:7-16] in Zarephath in the region of Sidon.
4:27 [example 2 of how God’s grace was extended to the Gentiles (a high government official in need of healing)] And there were many in Israel with leprosy in the time of Elisha [Elijah’s successor] the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed [or healed by Elisha] — only Naaman [a Gentile] the Syrian.”
4:28 All the people in the synagogue were furious [greatly angered; infuriated; wrath that boils up in a burst of rage; this fury foreshadowed the crucifixion; St. Augustine said, “They love truth when it enlightens them, but hate truth when it accuses them.”] when they heard this [Jesus’ illustrations of two Gentiles who were the recipients of God’s grace].
4:29 They got up, drove [or threw] him out of the town, and took him to the brow [ridge] of the hill on which the town was built, in order to throw him down the cliff [fury had turned to murderous rage].
4:30 But [because His hour had not yet come; Jesus still had a mission to fulfill] he walked right through the crowd and went on his way [to announce the good news to others].
4:31 Then he went [from Nazareth] down [in elevation] to Capernaum, a town in Galilee, and on the Sabbath began to teach the people [at the synagogue “as was His custom” (Lk. 4:16)].
4:32 They were amazed at his teaching, because his message had authority.
4:33 In the synagogue there was a man possessed by a demon [demons are fallen angels who joined Satan in his rebellion in heaven], an evilspirit. He cried out at the top of his voice,
4:34 “Ha! What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us [demon recognized that Jesus has power to destroy evil]? I know [there is no atheism or agnosticism among demons; cf. Jas. 2:19] who you are–the Holy One of God!”
4:35 “Be quiet [term means “to muzzle”]!” Jesus said sternly. “Come out of him [not a request or an option but a command]!” Then the demon threw the man down [cf. Mk. 1:26] before them all and came out without injuring him.
4:36 All the people were amazed and said to each other, “What is this teaching? With authority and power he gives orders to evil spirits and they come out!”
4:37 And the news about him spread throughout the surrounding area.
4:38 [cf. Matt. 8:14-17; Mk. 1:29-38] Jesus left the synagogue and went to the home [Peter from Bethsaida (Jn. 1:44) but must have moved to Capernaum where he and his brother worked as fishermen] of Simon [Peter]. Now Simon’s mother-in-law [cf. 1 Cor. 9:5 re: Peter’s wife] was suffering from a high fever, and they asked Jesus to help her.
4:39 So he bent over her and rebuked the fever, and it left her. She got up at once [indicates that her strength was immediately restored] and began to wait on them.
4:40 When the sun was setting [marking the end of the Sabbath (Lk. 4:31)], the people brought [“to move by carrying” (carrying burdens prohibited on the Sabbath)] to Jesus all who had various kinds of sickness, and laying his hands on each one, he healed them.
4:41 Moreover, demons came out of many people, shouting, “You are the Son of God!” But he rebuked them and would not allow them to speak [shows His authority over demons], because they knew he was the Christ [Jesus would reveal His identity on His timetable].
4:42 At daybreak Jesus went out to a solitary place [a place without distractions; a place where He could have quiet fellowship with God; a time for spiritual replenishment; cf. Mk. 1:35]. The people were looking for him and when they came to where he was, they tried to keep him from leaving them.
4:43 But he said, “I must [conveys sense of call and urgency] preach the good news of the kingdom of God [the rule of God in the hearts of people] to the other towns also, because that is why I was sent [cf. Lk. 19:10].”
4:44 And he kept on preaching in the synagogues of Judea.